Glucose concentration:- What is the most appropriate glucose concentration in IV fluids for children and young people of different ages? Oral health promotion advice:- For groups at high risk of poor oral health, how effective and cost effective is it to extend an existing appointment by a few minutes, or to offer separate sessions on oral health advice? Reducing use of emergency dental care:- What interventions are effective and cost effective at encouraging people who usually only go to emergency dental services to use general dental services regularly, in a bid to improve their oral health?
Behaviour change methods and resources:- What behaviour change methods and resources such as phone apps, leaflets and messaging help dental teams to provide people with support to improve their oral health? Encouraging people to change their oral health behaviour:- What triggers and other factors encourage groups at high risk of poor oral health to change their behaviours in response to oral health messages? Motivating dental practice teams to take a preventive approach:- What would motivate dental practice teams to take a preventive approach to oral health — especially with high risk groups — and how does this fit into the dental practice business model?
Recognising dying:- What can multiprofessional teams do to reduce the impact of uncertainty of recognising when a person is entering the last days of life on clinical care, shared decision-making and communication with the dying person and those important to them?
Agitation and delirium:- What is the best way to control delirium, with or without agitation, in the dying person, without causing undue sedation and without shortening life? Noisy respiratory secretions:- In people considered to be in the last few hours and days of life, are antisecretory anti-muscarinic drugs used alongside nursing interventions, such as repositioning and oropharyngeal suction better at reducing noisy respiratory secretions and patient, family and carer distress without causing unwanted side effects, than nursing interventions alone?
Anticipatory prescribing:- What is the clinical and cost effectiveness of anticipatory prescribing for patients dying in their usual place of residence, on patient and carer reported symptoms at end of life? Interventions:- In the UK, which activity-based interventions are most effective and cost effective at protecting older people who are at risk of a decline in their independence and mental wellbeing? Identifying older people at high risk:- In the UK, what are the most effective ways to identify older people who at risk of a decline in their independence and mental wellbeing?
Local coordination:- In the UK, what are the key components of a local coordination role to ensure best value for money in promoting older people's independence and mental wellbeing? Involving older people in developing interventions:- In the UK, what are the most effective ways of involving older people in developing interventions to promote their independence and mental wellbeing?
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Factors that influence older people's mental wellbeing:- In the UK, which factors or processes in an intervention influence older people's mental wellbeing? How do these factors interact with one another and does the importance differ for different groups? Mid-life interventions:- In the UK, which mid-life groups are currently at most risk of losing their independence or experiencing poor mental wellbeing in later life? And which interventions are most effective and cost effective in preparing these people for later life?
How can factors that contribute to the balance of health risks and benefits of sunlight exposure for different populations be quantified? What factors should be included in tailored messages for people with different characteristics and levels of exposure to the sun, including skin colour, age, occupation and lifestyle? What are the most effective ways of conveying complex risk messages and influencing behaviours in relation to over- and underexposure to sunlight?
In particular, what are the most effective ways of using social and digital media? Consideration should be given to the following: how does effectiveness vary according to communicator, message, audience and medium? How does this vary at individual, group and population level in the UK?
- Topological insulators : the physics of spin helicity in quantum transport.
- Gift shops.
- Academy of Surgical Research 35th Annual Meeting.
- Associated Data.
How does this vary for black and minority ethnic groups in the UK? What are the most effective methods of identifying and targeting individuals and groups at risk of either over- or underexposure to sunlight? What combinations of interventions are most effective at helping people to reduce their risks of, and benefit from, sunlight exposure? How much does this vary according to the type of intervention for example, the communicator, message, audience and medium?
Diagnostic investigations to predict treatment outcomes:- What is the prognostic value of the Hevylite assay and ratio compared with other prognostic factors and tests, including the serum-free light-chain assay and fluorescence in-situ hybridisation FISH , in people with newly diagnosed myeloma who are starting treatment? Imaging investigations for newly diagnosed myeloma:- What is the comparative effectiveness of whole-body MRI, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography CT FDG PET-CT and whole-body low-dose CT in detecting lesions that may determine the start of treatment for people with newly diagnosed myeloma?
Management of smouldering myeloma:- Which combinations of FISH, molecular technologies, bone marrow plasma cell percentage, whole-body imaging, immunophenotype, serum-free light-chain levels or ratio, Hevylite, paraprotein levels, immunoparesis, and International Staging System ISS are most effective at risk stratification for people with smouldering myeloma? What is the comparative effectiveness of fixed duration treatment with or without bone-directed therapy , continuous treatment with or without bone-directed therapy and no treatment with or without bone-directed therapy for people with smouldering myeloma?
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Allogeneic stem cell transplantation:- What is the effectiveness of combined autologous—allogeneic stem cell transplantation compared with autologous stem cell transplantation, plus consolidation and maintenance treatment in chemosensitive patients at first response or first relapse? Bisphosphonates for the prevention of bone disease:- What is the effectiveness of monthly zoledronic acid given indefinitely compared with zoledronic acid given for a fixed duration in patients with myeloma?
Systemic imaging — who and why? HPV testing:- What is the comparative effectiveness of single-step laboratory diagnostic tests to identify human papillomavirus HPV against current diagnostic test algorithms and reference standards in people with cancer of the oropharynx? Unknown primary of presumed upper aerodigestive tract origin:- In people with CUADT of unknown primary, can radiotherapy target volumes be selected based on clinical and pathological factors? Enteral nutrition support:- What specific clinical and non-clinical factors allow risk stratification when selecting which people with CUADT would benefit from short- or long-term enteral nutrition?
Follow-up:- What is the optimal method, frequency and duration of follow-up for people who are disease-free after treatment for CUADT? Cystourethrogram:- How accurate is the first CT scan with contrast trauma scan for detecting bladder injuries in people with suspected bladder injuries after a traumatic incident? Pilon fractures:- In adults with closed pilon fractures, what method of fixation provides the best clinical and cost effectiveness outcomes as assessed by function and incidence of major complications at 2 years stratified for timing of definitive surgery early [under 36 hours] versus later [over 36 hours]?
Virtual compared with face-to-face clinics:- What is the clinical and cost effectiveness of virtual new patient fracture clinics compared with next-day consultant-led face-to-face clinics in people presenting with non-complex fractures in the emergency department and thought to need an orthopaedic opinion?
Image guidance in the reduction of displaced distal radius fractures:- For patients with displaced fractures of the distal radius, is manipulation with real-time image guidance more clinically and cost effective than manipulation without real-time image guidance? Post-operative weight-bearing in people with ankle fractures:- What is the most clinically effective and cost-effective strategy for weight-bearing in people who have had surgery for internal fixation of an ankle fracture? Warming in patients with major trauma:- Is warming clinically and cost effective in patients with major trauma?
If so, which groups of patients will benefit from warming and what is the best method of warming? Treatment of torus fractures:- What is the clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of no treatment for torus fractures of the distal radius in children compared with soft splints, removable splints or bandages? Point-of-care coagulation testing:- What is the clinical and cost effectiveness of point-of-care coagulation testing using rotational thromboelastometry ROTEM or thromboelastography TEG to target treatment, compared with standard laboratory coagulation testing?
Lactate level for monitoring severity of shock:- Is lactate monitoring in patients with major trauma clinically and cost effective? Morphine compared with ketamine for first-line management of pain:- Is morphine clinically and cost effective compared with ketamine for first-line pharmacological pain management in both pre-hospital and hospital settings in patients with major trauma?
Audit:- What is the clinical and cost effectiveness of collecting long-term outcomes in a national trauma audit system? Rehabilitation: - What are the barriers to people with major trauma receiving early rehabilitation after rehabilitation assessment? What changes to services are needed to overcome these barriers? Dedicated transfer service:- Is it clinically and cost effective to provide a dedicated service to transfer patients with major trauma from the emergency department for ongoing care?
National pre-hospital triage tool:- A national pre-hospital triage tool for major trauma should be developed and validated. Neuropathic pain relief:- Does early treatment with a centrally acting analgesic for example pregabalin reduce the frequency or severity of neuropathic pain in people with spinal cord injury? Cervical spine dislocation:- What is the clinical and cost effectiveness of emergency reduction of cervical spine dislocations following acute traumatic cervical spine injury? Thoracic and lumbosacral assessment tool:- After injury, what is the best method of clinical assessment to determine who needs imaging of the thoracic and lumbar spine to exclude injury to the spinal column or cord, and who is safe to discharge without risk of missing significant injury?
Organisation of care:- Is a network-based model as effective as a clinic-based model to deliver multidisciplinary care to people with motor neurone disease MND? Cognitive assessment:- What is the impact of assessing for cognitive and behaviour change in people with motor neurone disease MND on clinical practice, the person and their family and carers? Does repeated assessment provide more benefit than assessment at a single point at diagnosis?
Saliva:- How is excessive drooling of saliva sialorrhoea managed in people with motor neurone disease MND? Nutrition:- Does a high calorific diet prolong survival of people with motor neurone disease MND if initiated following diagnosis or following initiation of feeding using a gastrostomy? Augmentative and alternative communication:- What is the current pattern of provision and use of augmentative and alternative communication AAC by people with motor neurone disease MND in England?
The role of families in supporting young adults discharged from children's services:- What is the most effective way of helping families to support young people who have been discharged from children's services whether or not they meet criteria for adult services? The role of primary care in supporting young people discharged from children's services:- What are the most effective ways for primary care services to be involved in planning and implementing transition, and following-up young people after transfer whether or not they meet criteria for adult services?
The consequences and costs of poor transition:- What are the consequences and the costs of young people with ongoing needs not making a transition into adult services, or being poorly supported through the process? Support to carers and practitioners to help young people's independence:- What is the most effective way to help carers and practitioners support young people's independence? Supporting young people to manage their conditions:- What is the relationship between transition and subsequent self-management?
Transition in special groups: young offenders institutions:- What is the most effective way of supporting young offenders in transition from children's to adults' health and social care services? Transition in special groups: looked-after young people:- What is the most effective way of supporting care leavers in transition from children's to adults' health services?
Effectiveness and cost effectiveness:- Are particular components of community engagement approaches more effective and cost effective at improving health and wellbeing and reducing health inequalities than other components? Evaluation frameworks and logic models:- Which evaluation frameworks and logic models can be used to evaluate the impact of community engagement on health and wellbeing? Social media:- How effective are online social media and networks at improving health and wellbeing and reducing health inequalities when they are used: - as a method of community engagement?
Glycated haemoglobin testing:- Does optimisation of HbA1c in people with poorly controlled diabetes improve surgical outcomes? Access to dental services in England for adults in care homes:- What effect does improving and maintaining access to dental services for adults in care homes have on their oral health and general health and wellbeing?
Effectiveness and costs of oral health interventions for care home residents:- How effective and cost effective are oral health interventions in care homes including suitable person-centred outcome measures? Measuring improvements in care home residents' oral health:- How can interventions to improve and maintain oral health and wellbeing, or to prevent dental disease, be measured using a patient-centred approach that can also be used to judge cost effectiveness?
Daily mouth care for residents:- Does the delivery of a daily mouth care regimen in care homes maintain or improve adult residents' oral health-related quality of life? Reducing demands on health and social care services:- Do preventive oral health interventions in residential and nursing care homes reduce demands on other health and social care services?
Facilitators and barriers to carrying out daily mouth care and oral health assessments for adults in care homes:- What are the facilitators and barriers to delivering daily oral care and conducting oral health assessments in residential and nursing care homes? Non-invasive tests for diagnosing NAFLD in adults:- Which non-invasive tests are most accurate and cost-effective in identifying non-alcoholic fatty liver disease NAFLD in adults with risk factors, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome?
Related Research Surgery and Care of the Research Animal. Patient Care, Vascular Access, and Telemetry
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