Bunge was also the author of the first analytic book written in Latin America, Causality: The Place of the Causal Principle in Modern Science , published by Harvard in , which was subsequently translated into Spanish. However, Bunge moved to Canada shortly afterwards and left no students in Argentina. Though he published few papers, Gregorio Klimovsky fostered the development of analytic philosophy in Argentina. His deep knowledge and enthusiasm for the foundations of mathematics, methodology of natural sciences, the foundations of psychoanalysis and the history of science left a deep impression on his students.
Klimovsky taught logic and philosophy of science at the University of Buenos Aires from to , introducing contemporary logic and analytic authors to philosophy students, some of whom became the first generation of Argentine analytic philosophers. Some of his most significant contributions have recently been compiled in Interpretar y referir.
His research [ 4 ] focused on the philosophy of logic and language, including the work of Russell, Frege, Quine, Kripke, and others. Felix Schuster focused his work on the philosophy of social sciences. In this work he was concerned with the methodology and validity of sociology, history, economics, anthropology, psychology and psychoanalysis, as well as the structure and predictive possibilities of the various theories. A number of lawyers and experts in the foundations of law introduced formal developments as well as analytic tools developed within ordinary language philosophy to study of the language of law.
While neither of them is strictly speaking an analytic philosopher both were trained within the phenomenological tradition they introduced their students to new analytic readings in their seminars. Gioja introduced classical analytic texts in legal philosophy and ethics to young students participating in a reading group with him.
Some of these young philosophers of law went on to become founders of the analytic tradition in the country. Rabossi wrote on many issues. Among the first analytic philosophers trained in law school, there was also a line of thought that departs from ordinary language and seeks to apply formal tools to studying the language of law.
Analytic Philosophy in Latin America (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
This work presents legal systems as deductive systems and aims to study the logical asymmetries between the processes of promulgation and the abolition of laws. Carlos Nino is one of the youngest members of the Law School tradition, and he played an influential role in both practical philosophy and the institutional history of Argentina.
He made important theoretical contributions in ethics, philosophy of law and constitutional theory, among others in Etica y derechos humanos. Nino died very young in While all the patriarchs of analytic philosophy in Argentina were formed by, began working, and convened at the University of Buenos Aires, the institutional history of the country forced them early on to leave the university and take refuge in an institution created to strengthen the development of analytic philosophy in the region. Shortly after, various philosophers begin to gather outside official circles in order to continue their philosophical work, founding SADAF in The founding of this institution converged philosophers from the two lines mentioned above, creating thereafter a unified community of analytic philosophers in the country.
As mentioned above, the rapid development of analytic philosophy in Argentina had two causes: its early institutionalization, and the teaching legacy of many of its founders who produced new generations of analytic philosophers whose works traveled beyond the borders of their country of origin. Thomas Simpson was the intellectual mentor of generations of philosophers of language, most significantly Alberto Moretti, who in turn formed a new and powerful generation of analytic philosophers.
By the mids, analytic philosophy was also developed beyond Buenos Aires, at the National University of Cordoba focusing on three areas: philosophy of language, under the direction of Carolina Scotto; logic, under the direction of Horacio Faas; and philosophy of science, under the direction of Victor Rodriguez. In the first half of the twentieth century, several Mexican philosophers, themselves not analytic philosophers strictly speaking, introduced a series of formal tools, texts, and themes of analytic philosophy in the country.
During this period philosophical discussions and publications in Spanish were encouraged. Classical analytic readings, such as works by Russell, Wittgenstein, and Moore, were introduced during those seminars. Mexico always welcomed political emigrants and had a policy of inviting other Latin American colleagues who helped strengthen ties among researchers in the region.
In those years several Argentine analytic philosophers e. The first article in Spanish about analytic philosophy of language—more specifically, about the private language argument—was published by Alejandro Rossi, who is of Italian and Venezuelan roots but developed his research in Mexico. This work and others were later reprinted in Lenguaje y Significado , a book consisting of five papers, which clearly reflects the shift from phenomenology to analytic philosophy, taking Wittgenstein as its juncture.
Analytic epistemology was introduced in Mexico by Luis Villoro, the author of a foundational Spanish book Saber, creer, conocer published in In this book, Villoro reviews many of the themes developed in twentieth century epistemology, such as the distinction between knowledge and belief, its connection with truth, the distinction between different types of knowledge know-that and know-how , and ethical considerations in a theory of knowledge e.
He also published with Eduardo Rabossi a series of translations of classical works in practical analytic philosophy, such as those of Moore, Strawson, Hare, Stevenson, Searle, Harman, etc. One of his deepest concerns seems to have been to place philosophy—understood as a critical and argumentative practice—in a central site for the political and intellectual development of a society. Also noteworthy is his institutional work, the dissemination of analytic philosophy in Latin America, and foreign presentations of analytic contributions made by Latin American philosophers.
The abovementioned founders of the analytic tradition in Mexico were followed by another group of philosophers who were worked on logic and philosophy of science. Analytic issues and authors were expanded throughout the country by Trejo who taught at other universities beyond the UNAM. Mark Platts, of British origin, moved to Mexico where he published Ways of Meaning in second edition in and Moral Realities: An Essay in Philosophical Psychology , where he explores the concept of desire and develops an anti-Humean theory of moral motivation.
1. Some Geographical and Theoretical Boundaries
Carlos Pereda originally from Uruguay works mainly on ethics, epistemology, and political theory, but also on speech acts and linguistic communication. Since then, younger generations of philosophers have diversified and deepened the analytic program. Unlike what happened in Argentina, Mexico, like Brazil, had consistent state policies that encouraged young scholars to pursue graduate studies abroad with the commitment to return to work in their own country.
Thus, many philosophers have gotten their PhDs abroad, and their doctoral advisors work outside of Mexico, usually in the United Kingdom or the United States. That is why the Mexican philosophical communities are held together by institutions such as the IIF-UNAM, unlike in Argentina where the student-advisor relation is essential to the consolidation of philosophical communities. In Brazil we find several early and isolated glimpses of the analytic tradition.
Vicente Ferreira da Silva published a book on the fundamentals of mathematical logic in It is remarkable that W. Though his work influenced the next generation of philosophers, he did not leave any students in the region. Within this first generation of Brazilian analytic philosophers, it is perhaps Newton Da Costa—the creator of paraconsistent logic—who achieved most prominence outside of Brazil.
Aside from the logical tradition, the rest of Brazilian analytic philosophy emerges not as a sequel of positivism, but as a philosophical innovation. The first publications in the area appeared in the 70s. In Brazil, unlike in Mexico and Argentina, early analytic works did not come from the phenomenological tradition, but from scholars in the history of philosophy.
- 2. History of Analytic Philosophy in Latin America.
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Wrigley and later by M. There is a large group of analytic philosophers in the area of Rio de Janeiro, including Oswaldo Chateaubriand, who works in philosophy of logic, metaphysics, and philosophy of language, and contributed to topics such as logical form, syntax, grammar, logical truth, theory of descriptions, theories of truth, modalities and counterfactuals. Every two years they organize an international symposium on topics of philosophy of science, epistemology, logic, and metaphysics.
In Colombia, as in other countries in the region, the first works in analytic philosophy were produced in the second half of the twentieth century. In the s there was much activity in ordinary language philosophy. There are many other contemporary Colombian philosophers who are making significant contributions within the analytic tradition. He wrote many works on logic, deontic logic, philosophy of mathematics, and also on the social and political reality of his country.
Beyond these isolated figures who left no students, only in the twenty-first century do we find two small groups in Peru working on analytic issues. At the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru, Pablo Quintanilla leads an interdisciplinary group dedicated to the study of the philosophy of language and mind and its evolution Grupo Mente y Lenguaje. In Uruguay, Carlos Vaz Ferreira introduced some ideas and texts from the analytic tradition in the first half of the twentieth century, but died very young in without leaving students. By the late s Ezra Heymann introduced Frege and Austin, and taught logic in Montevideo before moving to Venezuela.
He eventually returned to Uruguay with the return of democracy in the s and worked at the University of the Republic in the history of logic and philosophy of science. Chile shows a certain isolation. Roberto Torretti, who was exiled to Puerto Rico, stands out.
Chronology of Analytic Philosophy and its Historiography
He made an early impact with a well-regarded book on Kant published in These historical studies led to more systematic studies in the field of philosophy of science and history of geometry, published in the s. In the s there were only a couple of figures working on philosophy of mind and language in Chile. There were also more Venezuelans working within the analytic tradition at this time, including Rafael Burgos Wittgenstein and ontology and Pedro Lluberes ontology and philosophy of science.
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In Costa Rica, Claudio Gutierrez published papers in the area of philosophy of logic, epistemology, philosophy of language and philosophy of mind. Luis Camacho Naranjo makes contributions in epistemology and philosophy of science. Max Freund works on the logics of sortals, modal logic, and in the logical, computational and philosophical consequences of conceptualism.
Similarly, other Latin American philosophers emigrated to the United States; a paradigmatic case is Ernesto Sosa, a Cuban-born philosopher who studied and worked all his life in the United States who constantly sought to establish links with philosophy in Spanish, especially the analytic philosophers of Mexico and Argentina.
In this section I will mention examples of original work developed by philosophers who have done most of their professional work in Latin America within the analytic tradition. For reasons of space, it is impossible to be exhaustive. However, there are important contributions in all philosophical disciplines since Latin American analytic philosophers have addressed most of the universal problems posed by western philosophy.
In the case of theoretical philosophy, most research in Latin America was not originated by local thoughts or interests, but by the influence of philosophers abroad, i.
In the majority of cases the philosophical ideas proposed are not in dialogue exclusively with other members of the Latin American community, but with the broader international community. There are, however, some exceptions in the field of philosophical logic and philosophy of logic where important traditions were born: paraconsistent logic and the logic of belief revision. Paraconsistent logic is one of the autochthonous philosophical products of Latin America.
Related Analytic Philosophy in America: And Other Historical and Contemporary Essays
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