Four grew to five when Anderson measured electrons with positive charge — positrons — striking the Earth from outer space. At least Dirac had predicted these first anti-matter particles. Five became six when the pion, which Yukawa predicted would hold the nucleus together, was found. Then came the muon — times heavier than the electron, but otherwise a twin.
Rabi quipped. That sums it up. Number seven. Not only not simple, redundant. Into this breach sidled the Standard Model. It was not an overnight flash of brilliance.
They come in six varieties we call flavors. Like ice cream, except not as tasty. Instead of vanilla, chocolate and so on, we have up, down, strange, charm, bottom and top. In , Gell-Mann and Zweig taught us the recipes: Mix and match any three quarks to get a baryon. Protons are two ups and a down quark bound together; neutrons are two downs and an up. Choose one quark and one antiquark to get a meson.
A pion is an up or a down quark bound to an anti-up or an anti-down. All the material of our daily lives is made of just up and down quarks and anti-quarks and electrons. Well, simple-ish, because keeping those quarks bound is a feat.
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They are tied to one another so tightly that you never ever find a quark or anti-quark on its own. The theory of that binding, and the particles called gluons chuckle that are responsible, is called quantum chromodynamics. It incorporated the Higgs mechanism for giving mass to fundamental particles. Since then, the Standard Model has predicted the results of experiment after experiment, including the discovery of several varieties of quarks and of the W and Z bosons — heavy particles that are for weak interactions what the photon is for electromagnetism.
Discovering the Higgs boson in , long predicted by the Standard Model and long sought after, was a thrill but not a surprise. It was yet another crucial victory for the Standard Model over the dark forces that particle physicists have repeatedly warned loomed over the horizon.
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Sadly, at least for their proponents, beyond-the-Standard-Model theories have not yet successfully predicted any new experimental phenomenon or any experimental discrepancy with the Standard Model. After five decades, far from requiring an upgrade, the Standard Model is worthy of celebration as the Absolutely Amazing Theory of Almost Everything. Screen music and the question of originality - Miguel Mera — London, Islington. Edition: Available editions United Kingdom. How does our world work on a subatomic level? The smallest building blocks But these elements can be broken down further.
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Expanding the zoo of particles Meanwhile, nature cruelly declined to keep its zoo of particles to just three. The Standard Model of elementary particles provides an ingredients list for everything around us. You might also like New heavy nuclei are constantly generated in stars and other astronomical bodies. Evrard, J. Colberg, and F. Bartelmann and P. Schneider, Weak gravitational lensing, Phys.
Massey, J. Rhodes, R. Ellis, N. Scoville, A. Leauthaud, et al. Goske, B. Moore, J. Kneib, and G.
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A high—speed collision? Kahlhoefer, K. Schmidt-Hoberg, M. Frandsen, and S. Sarkar, Colliding clusters and dark matter selfinteractions, Mon. Clowe, M. Bradac, A. Gonzalez, M. Markevitch, S. Randall, C. Jones, and D. Zaritsky, A direct empirical proof of the existence of dark matter, Astrophys.
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Allen, T. Treu, H. Ebeling, R. Massey, R. Morris, A. A short video can be found at Google Scholar. Harvey, R. Massey, T. Kitching, A. Taylor, and E. Tottley, The non-gravitational interactions of dark matter in colliding galaxy clusters, Science , , arXiv: Massey, et al.
Navarro, C. Frenk, and S. White, Universal density profile from hierarchical clustering, Astrophys. Einasto, On the construction of a composite model for the galaxy and on the determination of the system of galactic parameters, Trudy Astrofizicheskogo Instituta Alma-Ata 5, 87 ADS Google Scholar. Merritt, A. Graham, B. Diemand, and B. Terzic, Empirical models for Dark Matter Halos. Nonparametric construction of density profiles and comparison with parametric models, Astrophys.
Dutton and A. Burkert, The structure of dark matter haloes in dwarf galaxies, Astrophys. Pierre, J. Siegal-Gaskins, and P. Vikram, et al. Scott and G. Smoot, Cosmic Microwave Background, given in Ref.
Weinberg, J. Bullock, F. Gevernato, R. Boylan-Kolchin, J. Bullock, and M. Kaplinghat, Too big to fail?
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